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Dongguan Anhao Chemical Materials Co., Ltd.


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Analysis of the efficacy and principle of plating additives

发布时间:2019-11-27 10:07:18 点击率: Directory: Industry News Release Time: 2019-11-27 10:07:18 Click Rate:

进行分类和介绍: Classification and introduction of plating additives :

镀铜 用的镉盐)和有机添加剂(如 镀镍 用的香豆素等)两大类。 Electroplating additives include inorganic additives (such as cadmium salts for copper plating ) and organic additives (such as coumarin for nickel plating ). Most of the plating additives used in the early days were inorganic salts, and then organics gradually gained dominance in the plating additives team. 光亮剂 、整平剂、应力消除剂和潮湿剂等。 Classified by function, plating additives can be divided into brighteners , leveling agents, stress relief agents and wetting agents. Additives with different functions usually have different layout features and effect mechanisms, but multi-functional additives are also more common. For example, saccharin can be used as a nickel-plating brightener and a commonly used stress relief agent; and additives with different functions also have Able to follow the same effect mechanism.

The role and efficacy mechanism of electroplating additives is that the electrodeposition process of metals is carried out step by step:

01. Electroactive material particles migrate to the outer Helmholtz layer near the cathode for electro-adsorption,

02. The cathode charge is transferred to the part of the electrode adsorbed to desolvate ions or simple ions to form adsorbed atoms,

03. Adsorbed atoms migrate on the electrode surface until they are incorporated into the crystal lattice.

The above-mentioned processes of plastic plating processing or vacuum plating processing all generate certain overpotentials (respectively, migration overpotential, activation overpotential, and electrocrystallization overpotential). Only under a certain overpotential, the electrodeposition process of the metal has a sufficiently high grain nucleation rate, a medium charge transfer rate, and a sufficiently high crystalline overpotential, thereby ensuring the product's electroplated coating to be flat, dense and shiny, and to the substrate Bonded firmly. Appropriate plating additives can increase the over-potential of metal electrodeposition and provide a practical guarantee for improving the quality of coatings and products.

Dispersion control mechanism In most cases, the dispersion of additives to the cathode (rather than the dispersion of metal ions) determines the rate of electrical accumulation of the metal. This is because the concentration of metal ions is usually 100 to 105 times the concentration of additives. For metal ions, the current density of the electrode response is much lower than its limit current density. Under the control of additive dispersion, most of the additive particles are dispersed and adsorbed on the protrusions, active sites and special crystal planes with large surface tension of the electrode, which causes the adsorbed atoms on the electrode surface to migrate to the recesses on the electrode surface and enter the crystal lattice. Then play a smooth light effect.

电镀 中占控制位置的非分散要素,可将添加剂的非分散控制机理分为电吸附机理、络合物生成机理(包罗离子桥机理)、离子对机理、改动赫姆霍兹电位机理、改动电极外表张力机理等多种。 Non-dispersion control mechanism According to the non-dispersion elements occupying the control position in electroplating , the non-dispersion control mechanism of additives can be divided into electro-adsorption mechanism, complex formation mechanism (including ion bridge mechanism), ion pair mechanism, and modification of Helmholtz Potential mechanism, mechanism of changing the surface tension of the electrode, etc.

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